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The importance of proteolytic enzymes: Revisiting to era

Volume No : (2017) Volume: 05 Issue : 28 Year : 2018 Page No: 181-185

Authors : Neelam N. Saraf , Surinder Kaur Makhija

Abstract :

Proteolytic enzymes (also termed peptidases, proteases, and proteinases) are capable of hydrolyzing peptide bonds in proteins. They can be found in all living organisms, from viruses to animals and humans. Proteolytic enzymes have great medical and pharmaceutical importance due to their key role in biological processes and in the lifecycle of many pathogens. These enzymes have amino acid sequences similar to mammalian enzymes, even both insect amylases and serine proteinases differ from mammalian enzymes in substrate specificity and conduct within the sight of protein inhibitors. There is a renewed interest in proteases as targets for developing therapeutic agents against relentlessly spreading fatal diseases such as cancer, malaria, and AIDS. Advances in genetic manipulation of microorganisms by site-directed mutagenesis of the cloned gene open new possibilities for the introduction of predesigned changes, resulting in the production of tailor-made proteases with novel and desirable properties. Proteases are extensively applied enzymes in several sectors of industry and biotechnology, furthermore, numerous research applications require their use, including production of Klenow fragments, peptide synthesis, digestion of unwanted proteins during nucleic acid purification, cell culturing and tissue dissociation, preparation of recombinant antibody fragments for research, diagnostics and therapy, exploration of the structure-function relationships by structural studies, removal of affinity tags from fusion proteins in recombinant protein techniques, peptide sequencing, and proteolytic digestion of proteins in proteomics. The aim of this paper is to review the importance of proteolytic enzyme and molecular biological aspects of proteolytic enzymes and their applications in the life sciences.

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